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Quantum Machine Learning

Before we discuss Quantum machine learning (QML), let's go through some basics of Quantum computation. Bear with me that today's post will be slightly longer than usual, as we are discussing an emerging field with various groundbreaking applications.  I also plan to launch an entire everyday series in Jan next year on Quantum Computation. Reply to this email, if you want to be informed if that happens.

In today's post we will cover:
What is a Quantum Computer?
Quantum superposition
Schrödinger's cat thought experiment
Quantum entanglement
Bra-ket Notation
Bloch Sphere
Quantum machine learning
Amplitude Encoding
Application of  Quantum System to improve machine learning tasks
Solving Linear Algebraic Equations
Dimensionality Reduction
Support Vector Machines
Deep Learning

What is a Quantum Computer?

A quantum computer is a computer that uses quantum-mechanical phenomena, such as superposition and entanglement, to perform operations on data. A quantum computer operates on qubits, which are units of quantum information. The strength of a quantum computer lies in its ability to exploit the features of a large number of qubits.

A qubit is the fundamental structure of quantum computing, which is an emerging technology used in various settings such as data security, early detection of disease, large-scale simulation and machine learning. Its defining feature is that it can represent a fraction of a quantum state, allowing it to be manipulated to enable a more efficient execution of quantum algorithms.

Quantum superposition is a phenomenon that occurs when a quantum system is in a state of multiple possibilities. This means that the system can be in different states at the same time and that it is impossible to predict which state it will be in. The most famous example of quantum superposition is the Schrödinger's cat thought experiment.

Schrödinger's cat thought experiment is a thought experiment devised by Austrian physicist Erwin Schrödinger in 1935. It illustrates the problem of the wave function collapse in quantum mechanics. The thought experiment involves a cat that is sealed in a box with poisonous gas. The gas has a 50% chance of killing the cat. The box is sealed so that the cat cannot be observed. According to quantum mechanics, the cat is both alive and dead until the box is opened. This thought experiment is important because it highlights the strange and counterintuitive nature of quantum mechanics.

Quantum entanglement is when two particles are connected together in a way that they can share information. Even if they are far apart, they can still communicate with each other.

Character Ripple. Rendered with Blender using Eevee.
Photo by Mingwei Lim / Unsplash

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